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‘linguistics applied’ ɥɔɐoɹddɐ to 

 the study of language use views individual language users as stable, coherent, internally uniform beings in whose heads the systems reside.

Because of their universal nature, the systems themselves are considered

independent 

from individual minds. That is, while language systems reside in 

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minds, they have a separate existence and

abstract systems,

Although individuals play no role in shaping their systems, they can use

since the more traditional view considers individuals to be agents of free will, and thus, 

autonomous

decision-makers. Moreover, since this 

view considers llɐ individual

action

driven by internally motivated states,

individual language us is seen as involving a high

degree of unpredictability

UNPREDICTABILITY

creativity

and

surrounding

as for the notion of identity, a

'linguistics applied'

perspective

views it as a set of

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thus remain detached from their users. 

characteristics unique to individuals, 

independent of language,

and unchains across contexts

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differently in a socio-cultural perspective on human

Action. Here

is not seen as

and

to the individual. Rather it is

viewed as socially
constituted, a

 historical and political contexts of an individual’s 

reflective,

ǝʌᴉʇɔǝlɟǝɹ

in applied linguistics.

lived

experiences. This view has helped

extractable

autonomous